(YN-68: dp. 1,275; 1. 194'6"; b. 37'; dr. 13'6"; sp. 12 k.; cpl. 56; a. 1 3", 3 20mm.; cl. Ailanthu~)
Papaya (YN-68) was laid down by the Pollock-Stockton Shipbuilding Co., Stockton, California 2 November 1942 Iaunched 23 May 1943, sponsored by Mrs. L. Lindley commissioned 1 December 1943, Lt. Comdr. Elias Johnson in command. She was reclassified AN-49 on 20 January 1944.
Following shakedown, Papaya joined ServRon 10 for duty in the Pacific and proceeded via Pearl Harbor to the Marshall Islands where she arrived 8 March 1944. After laying moorings and channel buoys and installing anti-torpedo nets in the Marshalls group, she departed for the Marianas, arriving Saipan 1 August. She assisted in net operations while fighting on the beach was still in process, helping capture both Saipan and Tinian. After returning to Long Beach 18 December for overhaul and alterations, she deployed to the Western Pacific again 22 May 1945, this time to Ulithi, Caroline Islands, for important net operations. Following the surrender of Japan, Papaya actively participated in the surrender and occupation of Yap and undertook several search missions to islands and atolls east of Ulithi capturing 26 Japanese soldiers. She departed 17 October for the United States via Saipan and Pearl Harbor and arrived San Diego 26 November. Surplus to the Navy's needs after World War II, Papaya decommissioned at Terminal Island 31 January 1946 and was stricken from the Naval Register 25 February.
Papaya received two battle stars for service in World War II.
Common Names: Papaya, Papaw or Paw Paw (Australia), Mamao (Brazil), Tree Melon.
Related Species: Babaco (Carica pentagona), Mountain Papaya (C. pubescens), Chamburo (C. stipulata).
Origin: The papaya is believed to be native to southern Mexico and neighboring Central America. It is now present in every tropical and subtropical country.
Adaptation: Papayas have exacting climate requirements for vigorous growth and fruit production. They must have warmth throughout the year and will be damaged by light frosts. Brief exposure to 32° F is damaging and prolonged cold without overhead sprinkling will kill the plants. Cold, wet soil is almost always lethal. Cool temperatures will also alter fruit flavor. Papayas make excellent container and greenhouse specimens where soil moisture and temperature can be moderated.
The origin of the neighborhood's name is disputed. One theory is that it came from the Ridgewood Reservoir in Highland Park, in Brooklyn just south of Ridgewood. The reservoir was on a high ridge in the middle of the Harbor Hill Moraine, a terminal moraine that runs the length of Long Island.   Another possible etymology is the forests that covered the area before colonial settlement, and that early English settlers called the moraine the "ridge" of Long Island. Yet another possible etymology is "Ridge Road". 
The name was originally applied by the government of Kings County (now coextensive with Brooklyn), and referred to an area within Brooklyn along the border between Kings and Queens Counties. In the early 20th century, developers gave the area various names, including Germania Heights, St. James Park, Ridgewood Heights, Wyckoff Heights, and Knickerbocker Heights, but only "Ridgewood" gained enough popularity past the 1910s. 
Early settlement Edit
Ridgewood is adjacent to Bushwick, Brooklyn, and the two neighborhoods have similar histories. Both were initially settled by the Lenape Native Americans, specifically the Mespachtes tribe (for whom the adjacent neighborhood of Maspeth is named).   In 1638, the Dutch West India Company secured a deed from the Lenape subsequently, Peter Stuyvesant chartered present-day Bushwick in 1661 under the name Boswijck, meaning "neighborhood in the woods" in 17th-century Dutch.  : 171   Likewise, Ridgewood was part of Newtown, one of the three initial towns in Queens, and was settled by the British. 
In both neighborhoods, British and Dutch families tilled farms and grew crops for Brooklyn's and Manhattan's markets. Many of these farms also had slaves.  : 1001   : 48 The only known remaining Dutch farmhouse in the neighborhood is the Onderdonk House, which was erected in 1709.  Also at the Onderdonk House site is Arbitration Rock, a marker for the disputed boundary between Bushwick and Newtown, and by extension Brooklyn and Queens (see § Border with Bushwick).   The land remained rural through the American Revolutionary War, though there may have been a burial ground in the area.  Ridgewood's oldest streets are Myrtle Avenue, Metropolitan Avenue, and Fresh Pond Road, which were used by farmers to take their goods to markets.  Fresh Pond Road was formerly a Native American trail the other roads were laid out as plank roads in the early to mid-19th century. 
19th-century development Edit
The development of public transportation, starting with horse-drawn cars in the mid-19th century and later succeeded by trolleys and elevated trains, helped to spur residential and retail development.  The first transit line to arrive in the neighborhood was the Myrtle Avenue horsecar, which was extended to Brooklyn's Broadway in 1855.   Following this, the Bay Ridge Branch opened in 1878, connecting to Sheepshead Bay, Manhattan Beach, and the Brooklyn shorefront via the Manhattan Beach Railroad.   The Myrtle Avenue elevated railroad, running above Myrtle Avenue within Brooklyn, was extended to the Queens border in 1889.   An electric trolley line through Ridgewood, running to Lutheran Cemetery, was opened along a private right-of-way in 1894. Ten years later, the Myrtle Avenue Elevated was extended on a ground level alignment over that trolley line.  The current elevated structure would be erected along the Lutheran Cemetery line's right-of-way in 1915. 
Simultaneously, northern Brooklyn was seeing an increase in the number of German immigrants.  Many of the city's German immigrants had originally settled in Manhattan's Little Germany, located mostly within the East Village and Lower East Side, in the mid-19th century.  By the late 19th and early 20th centuries, German immigrants had moved to other enclaves such as Yorkville, Manhattan Steinway, Queens and the north Brooklyn/Ridgewood area.  The discovery of freshwater under northern Brooklyn resulted in the development of breweries, where many Germans worked.  By 1880, there were 35 breweries in Brooklyn, including a 14-block "brewer's row" within Bushwick that contained at least 11 breweries.   Factories and knitting mills were also opened within the communities, and speculative German developers built houses, consisting mostly of multi-family stock that were three or four stories tall.  "Brewer's Row" had grown to 14 breweries by 1890.  
20th-century development Edit
Residential construction Edit
Ridgewood remained rural until the unification of New York City's boroughs in 1898, even as Bushwick had become fully developed. Development in Ridgewood in the 19th century consisted mostly of picnicking locations, beer gardens, racetracks, and amusement areas for the residents of Bushwick. By the end of the century, developers had bought these sites and started constructing rowhouses and tenements, usually two to three stories high.   The Ridgewood Board of Trade, created in 1902, was organized to develop the streets and utilities, and to improve the transit infrastructure.  
Much of the housing stock was erected between 1905 and 1915.   Most of the houses built before 1905 were wood-frame houses that year, a zoning ordinance was passed, requiring new buildings to be made of masonry.   The area was developed more quickly after the Queensboro Bridge opened in 1909, connecting Queens to Manhattan.  According to a 1909 issue of the Real Estate Record and Guide, development was concentrated in an 150-block area around East Williamsburg in Brooklyn, namely the present-day area of Ridgewood.  More than five thousand buildings were built from the beginning of the 20th century to World War I's start in the mid-1910s. Residential construction predominated in the southern part of Ridgewood while industrial factories and mills were prevalent in the northern section, near Newtown Creek. 
Construction slowed down during World War I, but resumed shortly after the war's end, and by the 1930s the last farmland in Ridgewood had been developed. Some of the later houses were single-family homes with garages.   Two of the more drastic changes to Ridgewood's character in the 1920s were the implementation of a street numbering system across Queens in 1925,  followed by the opening of the Canarsie subway on the neighborhood's southern border in 1928.  
Ethnic changes Edit
Ridgewood was among New York City's most quickly-developing neighborhoods between at least 1906   and 1911.   Much of the new housing was originally settled by Germans, who had mostly moved from other neighborhoods such as Williamsburg. To the German newcomers, the modern and more expansive houses in Ridgewood provided an improvement over the cramped housing stock in their former neighborhoods.  A 1913 Real Estate Record article stated that, for several years, Germans had been moving from Ridgewood from the city's other boroughs.  Figures from the 1910 United States Census indicated that much of Ridgewood's population was working-class and of German or Eastern European descent, and many homes were owner-occupied.    Ridgewood's German population was so large that the Ridgewood Times ' first issue in 1908 was published in both English and German. 
After World War I, the population expanded with an influx of Gottscheers, an ethnic German population from Slovenia who were dislocated in the aftermath of World War I, and spoke the Gottscheerish dialect.  Other Eastern Europeans came as well. As recorded in the 1920 United States Census, the population of Ridgewood was mostly working-class homeowners from Germany, Austria, or Italy, with a smaller population from Hungary, Ireland, Poland, and Sweden.     The demographic figures remained relatively unchanged through the 1930 United States Census.   The large German presence led to disputes following the rise of Nazi Germany, and a large, 9,000-person boycott of Nazi Germany in April 1934 resulted in brawls between Nazi sympathizers and Jewish Communist groups.  Still, in the 1939 WPA Guide to New York City, workers for the Federal Writers' Project described Ridgewood and Bushwick as "old-fashioned and respectable", and said that Ridgewood "rivals Manhattan's Yorkville as a German center." 
By the 1940 United States Census, Southern Europeans were also recorded as having moved into Ridgewood.  In the mid-20th century, Romanians, Serbs, and Puerto Ricans arrived. By the late 20th century, Poles, Dominicans,    and Ecuadorians—including a significant population of Quechua-speaking Amerindians from the Imbabura and Cañar provinces of Ecuador—had moved to Ridgewood.  Other large populations included Yugoslavians, Chinese, Koreans, and Slovenians.  
Late 20th century Edit
Originally, Ridgewood and Glendale shared ZIP Code 11227 with Bushwick. Following the 1977 blackout, the communities of Ridgewood and Glendale expressed a desire to disassociate themselves from Bushwick.  Residents voted on a proposal to create a new ZIP Code, and a majority of votes were cast in favor of the proposal.  The communities were given the ZIP Code 11385 in 1980. 
By the mid-1980s, parts of Ridgewood had been given federal landmark designations. Young professionals were also moving to the neighborhood in large numbers, and Ridgewood's homeownership rates increased. 
Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Ridgewood was 69,317, a decrease of 138 (0.2%) from the 69,455 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 1,156.31 acres (467.94 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 59.9 inhabitants per acre (38,300/sq mi 14,800/km 2 ). 
The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 39.8% (27,558) White, 2.0% (1,380) African American, 0.1% (93) Native American, 7.7% (5,331) Asian, 0.0% (19) Pacific Islander, 0.3% (204) from other races, and 1.1% (765) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 49.0% (33,967) of the population.  The entirety of Community Board 5, which comprises Maspeth, Ridgewood, Middle Village, and Glendale, had 166,924 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 81.4 years.  : 2, 20 This is about equal to the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods.  : 53 (PDF p. 84)  Most inhabitants are youth and middle-aged adults: 22% are between the ages of 0–17, 31% between 25–44, and 26% between 45–64. The ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 8% and 13% respectively.  : 2
As of 2017, the median household income in Community Board 5 was $71,234.  In 2018, an estimated 19% of Ridgewood and Maspeth residents lived in poverty, compared to 19% in all of Queens and 20% in all of New York City. One in seventeen residents (6%) were unemployed, compared to 8% in Queens and 9% in New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 46% in Ridgewood and Maspeth, lower than the boroughwide and citywide rates of 53% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018 [update] , Maspeth, Ridgewood, Middle Village, and Glendale are considered to be high-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying.  : 7
Ridgewood is zoned for various land uses, but is mostly commercial along main streets and residential along side streets. Large parts of the neighborhood are residential historic districts. In addition, the large Cemetery Belt is located directly to the south. 
The majority of the neighborhood covers a large hill, part of the glacial moraine that created Long Island, which starts at Metropolitan Avenue, rises steeply for about two blocks, then slopes down gently. For instance, at Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal Parish on 60th Place, the front entrance of the church is almost level with the second floor of the Parish school next door. [ citation needed ] Part of Ridgewood around the Linden Hill Cemetery, centered around Flushing and Metropolitan Avenues, was once known as Linden Hill, distinct from the neighborhood of Linden Hill in Flushing, Queens. Linden Street is named after this subsection of Ridgewood. 
Ridgewood is a densely settled neighborhood, with housing stock ranging from six-family buildings near the Brooklyn border to two-family and single-family row houses deeper into Queens.  Ridgewood is visually distinguished by the large amount of exposed brick construction, which is characteristic of the early-20th-century rowhouses built in the neighborhoods.    
Most of Ridgewood was developed block-by-block around the turn of the 20th century. Most of the buildings were designed by local architect Louis Berger & Co., which designed more than 5,000 buildings in the area.  The neighborhood has been largely untouched by construction since then, leaving many centrally planned blocks of houses and tenements still in the same state as their construction. These blocks include the Mathews Flats (six-family cold water tenements), Ring-Gibson Houses (two- and four-family houses with stores), and Stier Houses (curved two-family rowhouses). Many of these houses are well-kept and retain much of their early 20th century appeal. 
There are low-density commercial districts along Myrtle, Forest, and Metropolitan Avenues and Fresh Pond Road. 
Ridgewood is home to Ridgewood Savings Bank, the largest mutual savings bank in New York State. Their headquarters is located at the intersection of Myrtle and Forest Avenues and was built in 1929. The building architects were Halsey, McCormack and Helmer, Inc. and the general contractors were Stamarith Construction Corporation.  The building's exterior is made of limestone and contains an eight-foot granite base. The interior has travertine walls and marble floors.
Historic districts Edit
In Ridgewood 10 national historic districts were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. 
In addition, the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission has designated four landmark districts in Ridgewood:
- Stockholm Street Historic District, designated 2000. This historic district consists of 36 two-story brick rowhouses, two garages, and a stable built primarily in 1907-1910 by Joseph Weiss & Company along Stockholm Street, the only remaining brick street in Ridgewood. 
- Ridgewood North Historic District, designated 2009. This historic district includes 96 buildings, mostly three-story brick rowhouses called "Mathews Model Flats", built in 1908-1914 by the G.X. Mathews Company. 
- Ridgewood South Historic District, designated 2010. This historic district includes 210 buildings, a large collection of three-story brick rowhouses as well as the St. Matthias Roman Catholic Church, built in 1911-1912 by the G.X. Mathews Company. 
- Central Ridgewood Historic District, designated 2014. This historic district includes 990 buildings, mostly brick rowhouses, constructed in 1906-1915 by various small builders. 
Individual landmarks Edit
There are two individual city-designated landmarks:
- The Vander Ende-Onderdonk House, built in the mid-to-late 18th century and designated in 1995.  The house was a crucial point in the 1769 survey that established the Kings–Queens county border. 
- The Ridgewood Theater Building was built 1916 and designated in 2010.  The 1,950 seat William Fox moviehouse operated until 2008  and is now a Blink Fitness.
The Vander Ende-Onderdonk House, the Evergreens Cemetery, and St. Matthias Roman Catholic Church Complex are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.  
Maspeth, Ridgewood, Middle Village, and Glendale are patrolled by the 104th Precinct of the NYPD, located at 64-02 Catalpa Avenue.  The 104th Precinct ranked 21st safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime in 2010. However, the precinct covers a large diamond-shaped area, and Maspeth and Middle Village are generally seen as safer than Ridgewood.  As of 2018 [update] , with a non-fatal assault rate of 19 per 100,000 people, Ridgewood and Maspeth's rate of violent crimes per capita is less than that of the city as a whole. The incarceration rate of 235 per 100,000 people is lower than that of the city as a whole.  : 8
The 104th Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 87.4% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct reported 2 murders, 17 rapes, 140 robberies, 168 felony assaults, 214 burglaries, 531 grand larcenies, and 123 grand larcenies auto in 2018. 
When taken by mouth: Papaya fruit is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken in amounts commonly found in foods. Papaya leaf extract is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken as medicine for up to 5 days. Nausea and vomiting have occurred rarely.
The unripe fruit is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth. Unripe papaya fruit contains papaya latex, which contains an enzyme called papain. Taking large amounts of papain by mouth may damage the esophagus.
When applied to the skin: Papaya latex is POSSIBLY SAFE when applied to the skin or gums for up to 10 days. Applying unripe papaya fruit to the skin is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Unripe papaya fruit contains papaya latex. This can cause severe irritation and allergic reactions in some people.
What is the history of papaya?
Origin: The papaya is believed to be native to southern Mexico and neighboring Central America. It is now present in every tropical and subtropical country. Adaptation: Papayas have exacting climate requirements for vigorous growth and fruit production.
Similarly, what is the characteristics of papaya? Papaya flowers are fragrant and have five cream-white to yellow-orange petals 1 to 2 in (2.5 to 5.1 cm) long. The stigmatic surfaces are pale green, and the stamens are bright yellow. Papaya fruits are smooth skinned. They vary widely in size and shape, depending on variety and type of plant.
In this regard, when was papaya discovered?
The papaya first appeared in the Dominican Republic and Panama in the early 16th century. The plant only reached the Southeast Asian region in 1550, when Spaniards brought the seeds to the Philippines.
What is the side effects of eating papaya?
Papaya may cause severe allergic reactions in sensitive people. Papaya latex can be a severe irritant and vesicant on skin. Papaya juice and papaya seeds are unlikely to cause adverse effects when taken orally however, papaya leaves at high doses may cause stomach irritation.
Signs You Might Have A Scary Vitamin B12 Deficiency
Few nutrients&mdashheck, few bees&mdashare as buzzy as B12 right now. Juice bars are adding it to smoothies. Celebs like Rita Ora and Chelsea Handler get it injected into their bums. It's being touted as a magic bullet for everything from low energy to a sluggish metabolism, and it hit close to home at WH when three staffers were diagnosed with a B12 deficiency in a single week. We repeat: a single week!
Studies show that 15 percent of people are B12 deficient, and nearly 40 percent are borderline. That's a major loss, because the nutrient is a powerhouse&mdashcharged with helping to make DNA (no less!), keeping nerve and blood cells healthy, and helping to deliver fresh oxygen to organs. And when your body is tight on O2, you'll feel wiped out all the time, no matter how many Zs you log.
Yet many women with a deficiency go undiagnosed for not months, but years. Frustratingly, B12 levels aren't usually checked in routine blood work, and it's easy to chalk up symptoms of a deficiency to stress or busyness, says New York City nutritionist Robin Foroutan, R.D. So should you be supplementing?
A GROWING RISK
One reason B12 deficiencies seem to be blowing up? They're impacting two groups whose numbers are swelling. Most people take in enough B12 from natural sources&mdashmeat, fish, eggs, and dairy. That means vegetarians and vegans are most prone to lagging levels (up to 87 percent of the latter may be deficient). And with these dietary preferences on the rise&mdash8 million people now identify as vegetarian and vegan, and Google Trends shows a 90 percent increase in searches for "vegan" in the past year&mdashdeficiencies could further mushroom.
A similar story is unfolding for women with gut troubles. That's because chronic gut inflammation&mdashwhich comes with conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS affects up to 45 million adults, two-thirds of them female), celiac disease, or Crohn's&mdashlimits the body's ability to absorb the nutrient. Heartburn sufferers often lack the nutrient too, since acid-reducing meds can limit the stomach acid needed to release B12 from food. If you fall into any of these groups, visit your GP, who can test your blood (most insurance plans will cover the cost if your doc prescribes it) and discuss ways to bring up your B12 levels.
These symptoms can get scary fast&mdashgoing from mild to severe in as little as six months if untreated. If you notice any, see your doctor right away.
The Story of Papaya King, a New York City Original
The story of Papaya King, like so many of the great stories of the 20th Century, starts at the gates of Ellis Island. In 1923 Constantine "Gus" Poulos, a young immigrant from Athens, Greece arrived on these shores. He was penniless but ambitious. Poulos soon found work in a deli, which he ended up buying a few years later. The story might have ended there and then but for a 1932 vacation to Miami and Havana, Cuba where Poulos discovered the joys of tropical fruit drinks. Upon returning home he promptly closed his deli and opened Hawaiian Tropical Drinks, New York’s first juice bar. The location, on the corner of 86th Street and 3rd Ave in Manhattan, remains the flagship store of what would one day be known as Papaya King. In 1935 Poulos opened a second store in Brooklyn followed by an outpost in Upper Darby, PA in 1937. Hot dogs where added to the menu in 1939 and a New York Classic was born. The somewhat curious addition of hot dogs was a nod the original location's Yorkville neighborhood, which was largely German and Polish at the time. It is a combination that has stood the test of time.
The Papaya King hot dog is an all beef affair in a natural casing, cooked on a flattop and served on a toasted white bun. The dog is made by Marathon Enterprises based in nearby Englewood, NJ but the recipe is unique and proprietary. Marathon also manufacture the hot dogs for the Sabrett’s brand, Katz’s Delicatessen, and Gray’s Papaya, amongst others. A Papaya King dog topped with sauerkraut and mustard is perfectly acceptable, but the red onion sauce— a tangy tomato based concoction laced with vinegar, now ubiquitous on hot dogs in the city —was actually created specifically for Papaya King and gives you a taste of what made them unique, at least at one time. Appointed with a layer of onions, a hot dog from the Papaya King hits all of the right flavor and texture notes — the dog is heavy on the garlic with just a hint of smoke it's pleasingly salty and the casing provides a wonderful snap and subsequent explosion of juice revealing the undeniably beefy flavor when bitten. The sweetness from the onions helps to balance out the garlic, and the vinegar in the sauce cuts the richness of the fat. Wash it down with a viscous, frothy cup of papaya juice and you are tasting NYC history.
Like the fortunes of the city itself, those of Papaya King has ebbed and flowed, the business expanding and then constricting and expanding again in the ensuing decades. Over the years stores opened and closed in San Francisco, Miami, Baltimore and, somewhat ironically, Hawaii. The iconic neon sign that reads "PAPAYA" at the original location was erected in the 1950s but the name Papaya King was not formally adopted until the next decade. Legend has it that it was Babe Ruth who christened the chain. Inevitably imitators emerged selling similar hot dogs and tropical drinks: Papaya Heaven, Papaya Paradise, Papaya Place, Papaya Circle, Papaya World, Frank’s Papaya, Papaya Jack, and Original Papaya (which was anything but) all operated at one time in NYC, serving the familiar pairing of hot dogs and tropical drinks pioneered by Poulus. They are all long gone, although we still find Mike’s Papaya, Chelsea Papaya, and Papaya Dog in Manhattan. But Papaya King faces its stiffest competition from Gray’s Papaya. During the early 1970s Papaya King dabbled in franchising in NYC and a non-company store opened at 2090 Broadway on the corner of 72nd Street. In 1973 owner Nicholas Gray closed his Papaya King and reopened as Gray’s Papaya the two stands have had a rivalry as fierce as that of the Mets and Yankees ever since.
A company-run store also opened in the early 1980s on 59th Street on the corner of Third Avenue, but is now closed. Gus Poulos passed away in 1988 and his son Peter Poulos and nephew Alexander Poulos continued to run the business for almost a decade before selling the rights to the Papaya King brand to a private equity firm in 1997. By this time Papaya King had been firmly established not just in culinary culture — Julia Child declared it the best hot dog in NYC — but in popular culture as well. Both Elvis and The Beatles are said to have visited, and the stand is famously featured in Seinfeld when a hungry Cosmo Kramer leaves the movie theater line stating " I don't want a movie hot dog, I want a Papaya King hot dog!" But if the Poulus family had proved adept at creating a classic pairing, establishing an iconic brand and maintaining the original location, they proved to be far less suited to franchising and running a chain of Papaya Kings. Founders Equity had ambitious plans for Papaya King, eying national expansion. They first opened a location on 125th Street in Harlem, and once again set its sights on Philadelphia, opening a store on the campus of the University of Pennsylvania in 2001 it was closed by 2004. The goal of opening 10 to 12 stores within the first two years of the new millennium never panned out. Franchising was once again explored in 2006 with ill fated outposts in Garden City on Long Island and in the Connecticut Post Mall in Milford, CT. Units were also opened in Baltimore, New Jersey, and Miami. But all of those entities soon closed leaving only the original location in operation when Papaya King was once again sold in 2010 to Wayne Rosenbaum and an anonymous group of investors.
Rosenbaum brought almost a quarter century of catering experience as well as having held "practically every job in the restaurant business." His main focus was on "restoring the Papaya King brand." This included hiring a design firm to modernize the logo and renovate the flagship store, while maintaining the look and feel of the original. In 2011 West Coast nightlife impresario Sam Nazarian opened a Papaya King in Los Angeles that Rosenbaum describes as a "pop -up." Although at the time Nazarian announced plans to open locations in Nevada, Arizona, and Florida, they never materialized and the Los Angeles shop shuttered in 2013. But if the franchise model didn’t pan out in the West back in NYC Papaya King opened a second location in 2013 on St. Mark's Place in the East Village.
Rosenbaum expanded the menu at the new location, keeping the core products of dogs and drinks but adding items like nachos, a foot long Frank, and even a veggie burger to cater to the East Village’s demographic. Rosenbaum states unequivocally that there are currently no plans to franchise Papaya King. And while he is always "looking at real estate" and concedes that he would consider "the right location," he seems more focused on expanding his catering and mobile business. Papaya King launched a food truck last year that he describes as a "store on wheels," as well as operating three hot dog carts — all festooned in the brand's distinctive yellow. It is a smart move. Real estate prices in NYC have continued to skyrocket. The plateau in prices that Founders Equity anticipated never came, stymieing their plans at opening additional locations in NYC. Rosenbaum is playing to the brands strengths and the mobility of the product. The truck can be found around town at tourist attractions such as the Intrepid and at festivals like the Governor’s Ball and the Electric Zoo. It is paradoxical that modernizing the Papaya King brand involves returning to the streets, which lies at the very heart of the hot dog's origin story.
While there are still several other papaya-style hot dog stands operating in NYC, they will always only be imitators: Papaya King is the original. Long may he reign.
Papaya: A GMO success story
Dennis Gonsalves doesn’t have to travel far to see the fruits of his labor.
The 70-year-old scientist, now retired and living in Hilo, is a short drive from Puna and the papaya farmers he came to know closely more than 20 years ago.
Growing up in Kohala during the plantation days, Gonsalves went to the University of Hawaii at Hilo, hoping to return with an education and a job as a boss for one of the sugar companies.
Life took him in another direction. Finding a passion in scientific research, he ended up as a plant pathologist at Cornell University, where he helped make genetic history through the creation of the virus-resistant Rainbow papaya, credited with bringing the industry back from the brink.
“If you drove here in the 1990s, you would see nothing but dead (papaya) trees,” he said recently as he drove his pick-up truck toward the farm of Alberto Belmes in Keaau.
Tucked away behind Highway 130, the farm stretches over 100 acres with a seemingly endless forest of the tall but slender papaya trees planted in neat rows and topped with their green oblong-shaped fruit. Some of the fruits are displaying a yellow tinge as they ripen, and are being harvested by workers using long pickers needed to reach the top of trees that are as tall as 15 feet.
Each tree is transgenic and can trace their origins back to Gonsalves’ lab.
For Belmes, a Filipino immigrant who said his farm was “wiped out” by the ringspot virus, genetically-modified papaya has been nothing short of a life-saver.
“I still would be out of business,” said Belmes, his friendly eyes now matching the earnest tone in his voice.
“It’s hard to get a job in Hawaii.”
As protests against genetically modified food grow, the Rainbow papaya is frequently cited by scientists as a transgenic success story.
Belmes’ farm was one of the first to adopt the Rainbow papaya, which carries a protein coat gene from the virus, allowing it to reject the pathogen.
It didn’t take long to realize its benefits.
“When we started … everyone was jealous,” Belmes said.
“I’m so happy we are all Rainbow. Not me and myself, for everyone that has a job to go to work.”
Rainbow papaya makes up about 77 percent of the crop now, with some farmers still growing the non-transgenic Kapoho Solo to export to markets, like Japan, that are slow to embrace modified food.
But overall, papaya production remains a fraction of its peak.
In 2010, the most recent data available, there were 30.1 million pounds of papaya harvested in the state, almost all of it on the Big Island, according to the state Department of Agriculture.
Hawaii’s largest yield was 80.5 million pounds in 1984. In 1992, the virus hit Puna, which was growing 53 million pounds of papaya annually.
By the time transgenic papaya was commercialized in 1998, production had been cut in half and most trees were infected, Gonsalves said.
While production remains significantly below pre-virus levels, Gonsalves and other scientists believe there wouldn’t be much left without it.
“There’s no papaya industry. Simple as that,” he said.
Before being located almost entirely in Puna, papaya had been mostly grown on Oahu. Those crops were hit by the virus, carried by aphids, in the 1950s, causing the re-location to the Big Isle. It was first detected on the island in the 1970s in Hilo before spreading to Puna.
A hindrance to the growth papaya industry is the acceptance of transgenic crops abroad.
Japan, which has historically been a major consumer of Hawaii papaya, didn’t accept the Rainbow variety until December 2011, and it still makes up a tiny fraction of exports to the country.
The Pacific neighbor has also required non-transgenic papaya to be tested to ensure its genetic purity, Gonsalves said.
Japan imported $1.3 million worth of papaya in 2012, about 16 percent of all of Hawaii’s papaya exports.
Gonsalves expects that to continue to grow over time as consumers elsewhere begin to accept the Rainbow papaya as safe, but at the same time, hints that lingering concerns over the safety of modified food may slow that down.
The transgenic papaya had been thoroughly tested, Gonsavles said, for impacts on nutrition and allergens. The transgenic and non-transgenic fruit were found to be “substantially equivalent” in terms of nutritional value, meaning there are no significant variations, according to a 2011 study by the Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center in Hilo and the University of Hawaii.
There are also no increased risks for allergens, said Gonsalves, who directed PBARC until his retirement in December, and he believes health concerns are unwarranted.
“Some people say, ‘I never eat transgenic papaya.’ Great. But don’t tell me it’s not safe,” he said.
For some organic farmers who seek to grow non-modified crops, Rainbow papaya is not a welcomed neighbor.
Geoff Rauch, a Pahoa farmer, said the transgenic fruit makes it harder to ensure that his produce isn’t modified.
Genetic purity requires vigilance, and presents an additional challenge for organic farmers, he said.
“Every year, I get it sampled so I can tell (customers) I am growing non-transgenic papaya,” Rauch said.
Loren Mochida, director of agriculture operations for W.H. Shipman, said he believes transgenic and non-transgenic papaya growers can co-exist, noting that some commercial growers still have both varieties on their farms.
“Actually it (Rainbow papaya) helps the organic guys,” he said. “… It keeps the virus pressure down on the surrounding areas.”
Another study PBARC published in 2011 showed low levels of pollen drift between Rainbow and non-transgenic papaya as long as the plants were hermaphrodites.
The study found that between 0.8 percent and 1.3 percent of tested Kapoho Solo hermaphrodite trees grown adjacent to Rainbow papaya produced transgenic genes. Nearly all of commercial plants are hermaphrodites, which self pollinate.
The transfer rate was much higher for female plants at 67.4 percent.
Gonsalves notes that only the seeds carry the new genes, not the fruit itself.
“If there is cross-contamination, that crop can still be sold as an organic crop,” he said.
The story of transgenic papaya doesn’t end with the Rainbow variety or the ringspot virus.
David Christopher, chair of molecular biosciences and bioengineering at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, said he is working to develop papaya that is resistant to a fungus that also frustrates growers.
The pathogen is related to the bacteria that caused Ireland’s potato famine, he said, and he believes he can eliminate it by adding a grape gene to the DNA of papaya.
“If we can (get) consistent results, farmers in humid wet regions will not have to spray their papayas with chemical fungicides, leading to a cleaner and safer farming conditions,” he said in an email.
So far, full resistance hasn’t been reached, but the research is promising, with field trials possibly a few years away, Christopher said in a phone interview.
Belmes, who has a few trees killed by the fungus, said he would be happy to try it.
“Chemicals for spraying is so expensive,” he said.
Gonsalves said farmers also have to let fields go fallow for three years to combat the fungus.
The fungus is particularly problematic during times of extended rain, said papaya grower Ross Sibucao.
“In wet weather, at least 20 percent or 30 percent” of trees are impacted, he said.
The non-transgenic Kapoho Solo is slightly more tolerant of the fungus than Rainbow, said Gonsalves, though both are hit hard.
Without a resistant variety, traditional cross-breeding becomes an unlikely solution, Christopher said.
Scientists came across the same problem with tyring to defeat the virus.
Few plants are related to papaya, making it difficult to cross-breed resistance.
“Papaya is a problem because it doesn’t have any wild relatives,” Christopher said.
“It’s really genetically uniform.”
Recently, a researcher in Australia had some success crossing papaya with a ringspot-resistant plant from South America known as calasacha or vasconcellea quercifolia.
The resistance failed to transfer passed the first generation and the hybridized plant didn’t produce fruit that was commercially viable, said Richard Manshardt, a horticulturist with UH-Manoa.
Manshardt said UH scientists also picked up on the research, but it doesn’t look promising and funding is expected to run out.
“At this point, it doesn’t look like we got anything useful from that experiment,” he said.
Despite continued controversy over genetically modified food, Gonsalves believes he and other scientists made the right decision with papaya.
In presentations, he said he always shows a picture of a woman in Thailand planting one of his immunized papaya trees. Those trees were protected from the ringspot virus but couldn’t pass on resistance to the next generation, preventing them from being a solution to Hawaii’s problem.
Still, it highlights the point he tries to pass to his audience.
“That to me, it brings us back to why we’re doing something,” Gonsalves said.
“In the end, we did it to help people.”
Still, he doesn’t see all uses of genetic engineering as being equally altruistic. He believes its uses need to be looked at case by case.
“This is a powerful tool …,” Gonsalves said.
“The big question is, ‘Is it causing harm to the environment, causing harm to human safety?’
“To my estimation, the answer is we have acted good.”
Email Tom Callis at [email protected]
2010 harvest: 30.1 million pounds
1970s: Ringspot virus found in Hilo
1991: Scientists successfully develop transgenic papaya that is virus resistant.
1992: Virus hits Puna. Production at 53 million pounds.
1998: Rainbow papaya approved by regulatory agencies for commercialization. Production in Puna at 26 million pounds.
What’s in a Papaya? Nutrition Facts of the Yellow-Orange Fruit
Similar to other fruit, papaya is healthy when eaten as part of a balanced diet and is relatively low in calories, notes the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate guidelines . One small papaya — about 157 grams (g) — has only 68 calories, according to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). (3)
Other nutritional facts for papaya:
- 2.7 g dietary fiber, or 10 percent DV
- 31 milligrams (mg) calcium, or 3.1 percent DV
- 33 mg magnesium, 8 percent DV
- 286 mg potassium, 6.08 percent DV
- 0.13 mg zinc, 0.9 percent DV
- 95.6 mg vitamin C, 106.2 percent DV
- 58 micrograms (mcg) folate, 14.5 percent DV
- 1,492 international units (IU) vitamin A, 30 percent DV
- 0.47 mg vitamin E, 2.4 percent DV
- 4.1 mcg vitamin K, 5.1, percent DV
The western terminus of US 40 is in Silver Summit, Utah at an interchange with Interstate 80, several miles north of Park City, at Silver Creek Junction. The road is concurrent with US 189 until it has reached Heber City. US 40 is a limited access highway from the I-80 junction to its intersection with Utah State Route 32 (SR-32), about 13 miles (21 km) south of Park City. From there, the road takes a generally southerly course to Heber City. In Heber City, there is an intersection with SR-113. One mile later, US 189 splits off. There would be no more major intersections until US 40 has reached Fruitland, as it meets SR-208. About 18 miles later, the road enters Duchesne. In Duchesne, it meets US 191 and SR-87. US 40 passes Duchesne and starts a concurrency. The concurrency continues into Roosevelt, Fort Duchesne and Vernal. In Roosevelt, it meets SR-87 again in a 5-point intersection. There are two intersections with SR-121, in Roosevelt and Vernal. In Fort Duchesne, there is an intersection with SR-88. After US 40 passes Vernal, US 191 splits off and the concurrency ends. After that, there are no more major intersections until US 40 reaches Naples, as it meets SR-45. About nine miles (14 km) later, US 40 enters Jensen. In Jensen, there is an intersection with SR-149. About 18 miles (29 km) later, the road enters Colorado.  
US 40 enters Colorado, 2 miles (3.2 km) west of Dinosaur. In Dinosaur, there is an intersection with Colorado State Highway 64. After passing Dinosaur, there are no more major intersections until US 40 reaches Maybell, as it meets with Colorado State Highway 318. 30 miles later, the road enters Craig. In Craig, US 40 starts a very short concurrency with State Highway 13 (SR 13). After Craig, SH 13 splits off. The road then passes through Hayden without major intersections. Then it exits Hayden and enters Steamboat Springs. There is an intersection with SH 131 and SH 14. US 40 then continues southeast into Kremmling. In Kremmling, there is an intersection with SH 134 and SH 9. It then exits Kremmling and enters Granby. There is an intersection with US 34. The road then passes Fraser and Winter Park without major intersections. About 26 miles (42 km) later, US 40 starts a concurrency with I-70. About 15 miles (24 km) later, I-70 splits off. Four miles (6.4 km)s later, it is concurrent again. Three miles (4.8 km) later, I-70 splits off again. After the second concurrency with I-70, US 40 enters Denver.
The road passes through downtown Denver, and has intersections with SH 391, SH 121, SH 95, and SH 2 and an interchange with US 287. The route through Denver also serves as the business loop for I-70. East of Denver, US 40 passes through Aurora and becomes concurrent with I-70 once again. Seventy miles (110 km) later, it enters Limon. In Limon, I-70 splits off, however the road is still concurrent with US 287. There is an intersection with SH 71. US 40 then passes Hugo without major intersections. In Wild Horse, it meets SH 94. About 20 miles (32 km) later, the road enters Kit Carson. There is an intersection with SH 59. After Kit Carson, US 287 splits off and the concurrency ends. After that, there are no more major intersections until US 40 reaches Cheyenne Wells, as it meets US 385 in an interchange. The road then passes Arapahoe without major intersections. Seven miles (11 km) later, US 40 enters Kansas.
US 40 enters Kansas near the unincorporated community of Weskan. The first sizable town it enters is Sharon Springs, where it intersects K-27. From there it goes northeast to Oakley and follows Eagle Eye Road before merging with I-70 east of town. The two routes remain merged until Topeka, although the prior alignment of US 40, named Old Highway 40, parallels I-70 for most of the way.   From Ellsworth to Salina, the old alignment of US 40 is signed as K-140.
In Topeka, US 40 leaves I-70 at exit 366, follows the Oakland Expressway concurrent with K-4 north to 6th Avenue, then heads east along 6th Avenue out of town. Through Topeka, US 40 closely follows the route of the Oregon Trail.  At the Shawnee-Douglas county line near Big Springs, US 40 crosses to the south of I-70 and enters Lawrence from the west along West 6th Street. At the west side of Lawrence, the route is joined by K-10 and travels south and east to the junction with US 59 and then runs north with US 59 to cross the Kansas River. It follows North 2nd and North 3rd Streets, crosses back under I-70, leaves US 59, and merges with US 24   before leaving town.
US 40 remains merged with US 24 as the two routes travel northeast to the town of Tonganoxie. From there, the merged routes turn due east toward Kansas City, Kansas. In Kansas City, US 40 and US 24 intersect US 73 and K-7, and turning south toward Interstate 70. US 40, along with US 24, then merge onto I-70 and recross the Kansas River over the Lewis and Clark Viaduct just before entering Kansas City, Missouri.   
On December 1, 2008, US 40, along with US 24 and US 73, was rerouted south along K-7 west of Kansas City to the intersection with I-70. Before this date, US 40 and US 24 continued along State Avenue to College Parkway before turning right to follow Turner Diagonal for 1 ⁄ 2 mile (800 m) where US 40 joined Interstate 70 for the duration of its journey eastward toward Missouri.
In 1951, the State of Kansas designated U.S. Route 40 as a Blue Star Memorial Highway from border to border.
US 40 enters Missouri in Kansas City along a concurrency with I-70. It leaves I-70 at exit 6 and follows Van Brunt Boulevard for a short distance before turning east and crossing I-70 again at exit 7A. US 40 parallels I-70 to the north through Kansas City until exit 11, where it crosses and parallels it to the south through the suburbs of Independence, Lee's Summit, Blue Springs, and Grain Valley before it rejoins I-70 at exit 24. An older alignment carries the designation "Old US 40".
US 40 stays with I-70 until it reaches Boonville, where it leaves at exit 101, along with Business Loop 70. Both designations follow Ashley Road, before US 40 leaves and heads north along Main Street. After crossing the Missouri River in Boonville, US 40 turns east before rejoining I-70 again at exit 121 on the outskirts of Columbia. The two routes remain concurrent until exit 210A in Wentzville.
From Wentzville, US 40 now joins a concurrency with I-64 and US 61 and heads southeast, crossing the Missouri River again over the Daniel Boone Bridge in St. Charles. US 40 stays joined with I-64 and leaves the state in St. Louis on the Poplar Street Bridge across the Mississippi River, along with I-64 and I-55.
Until 1926, US 40 in Missouri was Route 2. 
On January 2, 2008, five miles (8 km) of the route in St. Louis was closed both eastbound and westbound from I-170 to I-270. It re-opened December 15, 2008 two weeks ahead of the originally scheduled date of December 31, 2008. On December 13, 2008, another five-mile (8 km) section of the freeway closed both ways from I-170 to the Kingshighway exit in the city. It was re-opened on December 7, 2009. The entire freeway is now open for travel, with the speed limit raised to 60 mph on most of the stretch. It is also now a full freeway all the way from Downtown St. Louis to Wentzville.   When complete, the entire new freeway was signed as Interstate 64.
The next 159.99 miles (257.48 km) of US 40 lie within the state of Illinois.  Except where the route has been re-aligned with Interstate 70, it is an entirely undivided surface route. Formerly a major highway, it has lost most of its non-local traffic to Interstate 70. Some early bypasses of towns were built with the apparent intention of twinning them as a divided highway with access limited to intersections. I-70 uses none of those old bypasses that remain as sections of US 40. The westernmost portion of the historic National Road lies on most of the US 40 alignment in Illinois.
US 40 crosses into Illinois at East St. Louis on the Poplar Street Bridge concurrent with I-55/I-64. The route has a close relationship with I-70 for the remainder of the time it spends in the state, being directly concurrent with or paralleling it throughout Illinois.
Between Pocahontas and Mulberry Grove, US 40 passes through several small towns. In Vandalia, Illinois, the former state capitol, it follows Veterans Avenue and Kennedy Boulevard (with US 51) through town. The Old State House in Vandalia marks the western terminus of the National Road, one of the earliest roads upon which US 40 was designated. From Vandalia, the road continues to the northeast passing through the early German settlement town of Teutopolis and several city streets in Effingham. Beyond Effingham, US 40 passes through many small unincorporated towns before leaving the state near Marshall.  
US 40 enters Indiana from the west at unincorporated Liggett along with I-70. US 40 leaves the interstate at exit 11 and heads north through the east side of Terre Haute with SR 46. The road leaves the city to the northeast upon reaching Wabash Avenue.  
Upon leaving Terre Haute, US 40 passes through the small towns of Seelyville, Brazil, Knightsville and Harmony. Between Seelyville and Brazil, the road bypasses several small unincorporated communities which are served by State Road 340, a former alignment of US 40. The road continues to the northeast beyond Harmony, passing many unincorporated places such as Reelsville, Pleasant Gardens, Manhattan, Putnamville, Mount Meridian, Stilesville and Belleville along the way to Plainfield, a suburb of Indianapolis.  
In Plainfield, US 40 is Main Street and passes The Shops at Perry Crossing and a nostalgic stainless steel diner. Upon leaving Plainfield, US 40 becomes Washington Street, where it passes by the northern edge of Indianapolis International Airport. After passing the airport, US 40 is now routed onto Interstate 465 Southbound on the west side of Indianapolis. A sign along the entrance ramp advises motorists "For US 40 East, Follow I-465 South to Exit 46." This route bypasses downtown Indianapolis and instead goes through the southern part of Indianapolis its nearest point is about 5 miles (8.0 km) south of the city center. (Previously, the highway did not join with I-465 but continued along Washington Street, where it entered Indianapolis proper near Eagle Creek, a tributary of the White River. In downtown Indianapolis, the old highway crossed White River on a bridge that is now pedestrian only and part of White River State Park and North of the current Indianapolis Zoo. The new alignment diverts at White River Parkway W. Dr. and rejoins original route at the Indiana State Museum, the length of US 40 replaced is about .9 of a mile. The new alignment included the diversion to create White River State Park, and split into a pair of one-way streets: Washington Street carries westbound traffic and Maryland Street carries eastbound traffic. Originally US 40 was 2-way street all through town. In Indianapolis, the old highway passes several key landmarks, including White River State Park, the Indianapolis Zoo, the Indiana State Museum, the Eiteljorg Museum, Victory Field, the Lucas Oil Stadium, and the Indiana Statehouse.) Along the eastern edge of Indianapolis, US 40 leaves I-465 at Exit 46 and is once again routed onto Washington Street.  
East of Indianapolis, US 40 enters Cumberland where it takes the name National Road. Paralleling I-70 at a distance of about 3.5 miles (5.6 km), US 40 continues eastward across Indiana, passing through such communities as Greenfield, Knightstown, Lewisville, Straughn, Dublin, Mount Auburn, and Cambridge City, where it is known by various local names including Washington Street, Main Street, and National Road.  
Note: Just east of Knightstown, cross the Big Blue River, on the right is part of the old National Road. This section is about 4.3 miles long and rejoins US 40 in Dunreith. 
US 40's last stop in Indiana is the city of Richmond. In Richmond, it passes a statue known as Madonna of the Trail, one of a series of twelve statues across the U.S. that memorialize women pioneers who made the trek to settle the western U.S.  In 1968, a section of US 40 (Main Street) in Richmond was destroyed by a massive gas explosion. This caused a section of Main Street to be closed to automobile traffic, and US 40 was rerouted along North A Street (westbound) and South A Street (eastbound).  Near the Indiana/Ohio border, US 40 crosses I-70 at exit 156B before entering Ohio. 
US 40 enters Ohio just to the south of New Paris. The road is always close to the newer I-70 eastward toward Dayton. In Vandalia, the road passes to the south of Dayton International Airport and crosses the Dixie Highway and I-75 and the Great Miami River. The road never actually enters Dayton, instead skirting the northern suburbs on the way toward Springfield.  
The portion of US 40 between Medway-Carlisle Road (Ohio State Route 571/County Road 303) and Lammes Lane in Bethel Township, Clark County, is designated "Staff Sergeant Wesley Williams Memorial Highway",  in honor of a 2005 Tecumseh High School graduate who died on December 10, 2012, while serving in the U.S. Army, from injuries suffered when enemy forces attacked his unit with an improvised explosive device in Kandahar Province, Afghanistan.   The designated portion of road runs by the high school.
In Springfield, US 40 is split between two one-way streets. North Street carries US 40 West and Columbia Street carries US 40 East. The route then shifts on to East Main Street before leaving town to the east, once again as National Road. I-70 crosses again at unincorporated Harmony. US 40 passes just north of London where it intersects Ohio State Route 56 and US 42 before heading into West Jefferson. In West Jefferson, US 40 is routed on Main Street.  
In the Columbus metropolitan area, US 40 enters from the west as Broad Street. Among the sites along US 40 in Columbus are the Ohio Statehouse and its William McKinley Monument, the Columbus Museum of Art, and LeVeque Tower, the oldest skyscraper in Columbus. In Bexley, the route follows Main Street, using Drexel Avenue to get between Broad and Main. US 40 continues as Main Street through Reynoldsburg before leaving the Columbus area as National Road yet again.  
East of the Columbus metro area, US 40 parallels I-70 at a distance of about 1-mile (2 km), passing through several small towns, including Kirkersville, and Hebron. In Zanesville, the road becomes Main Street, and at the center of town US 40 begins a concurrency with US 22 that carries it to Cambridge. US 40 crosses the Muskingum River in Zanesville on the famous Y-Bridge. Routes 22 and 40 enter Cambridge from the southwest along John Glenn Highway, and split in town US 40 follows Wheeling Avenue. In Old Washington, US 40 joins I-70 at Exit 186. It leaves I-70 at exit 201 near Morristown. The two roads cross paths several times before they both leave Ohio on a pair of bridges across the Ohio River at Bridgeport.  
The now-decommissioned Ohio State Route 440 ran along old US 40 in places where US 40 had been shifted onto I-70.
West Virginia Edit
US 40 is only 16 miles (26 km) long as it passes through West Virginia, mainly through Wheeling, where it briefly runs concurrent with both I-70 and US Route 250. It diverges from I-70 east of the Fort Henry Bridge and into the northern section on the downtown Wheeling area, where it meets with the Wheeling Suspension Bridge, which was the former link for the National Road.
It then turns twice left and passes over I-70 and Wheeling Hill, past McColloch's Leap, and into the Wheeling suburbs. It intersects WV Route 88 halfway through this leg of US 40, and the southbound leg of WV 88 runs concurrent with US 40 at this point until it reaches Elm Grove, where US 40 turns left and heads into Tridelphia and Valley Grove before reaching the Pennsylvania state line.
US 40 enters Pennsylvania at West Alexander. It closely parallels I-70 from West Virginia until it reaches Washington where it follows, Chestnut St, Jefferson Avenue and Maiden Street. In Washington, US 40 passes to the south of Washington & Jefferson College. Following Maiden Street out of town, the road turns southeast toward the town of California. A short limited access highway in California and West Brownsville provides an approach to the Lane Bane Bridge across the Monongahela River. From here, the road continues southeast to Uniontown. 
US 40 bypasses Uniontown along a limited access highway that also carries US 119. An old alignment through Uniontown is signed as "Business US 40." Southeast of Uniontown, travellers pass the Fort Necessity National Battlefield. It follows Braddock Road southeast of Uniontown, crossing the Youghiogheny River Lake on a bridge completed in 2006. US 40 leaves Pennsylvania at Addison 
US 40 enters Maryland from Pennsylvania near Grantsville in the western part of the state. Here, and through most of the state, it is known as National Pike. US 40 leaves National Pike shortly after entering Maryland from the northwest and merges with I-68 and US 219 at exit 14B. The old alignment of US 40, still known as National Pike, is signed through much of the western part of the state as either "Scenic US 40" or "Alternate US 40". US 219 leaves the three-way concurrency at exit 22, but US 40 and I-68 remain on the same pavement through Frostburg and Cumberland. 
East of Cumberland, the old National Pike (formerly US 40) carries the MD 144 designation. The I-68/US 40 roadway passes through a 340-foot (100 m) deep cut in Sideling Hill. Just to the east of the cut is the Sideling Hill Exhibit Center, a museum that highlights Western Maryland geology.  At Hancock, where the state of Maryland narrows to less than two miles (3 km) wide, I-68 ends, and US 40 merges onto I-70 at exit 1. The two routes closely follow the course of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Potomac River for several miles before US 40 leaves the Interstate at exit 9. US 40 passes directly through the center of Hagerstown using Washington Avenue (eastbound) and Franklin Street (westbound). Heading southeast out of Hagerstown, US 40 diverges into two separate routes, US 40 and US 40 Alt. US 40 parallels I-70, its longtime travel partner, crossing it at exit 32 near Greenbrier State Park on the Baltimore National Pike alignment. US 40 Alt heads southeast on the Old National Pike alignment through Boonsboro, crossing South Mountain at Turner's Gap. The two routes converge just west of Frederick. 
In Frederick, US 40 uses Patrick Street before merging onto the US 15 expressway for a short distance. It leaves US 15 and rejoins I-70 on the outskirts of Frederick. MD 144 once again takes over the old alignment of US 40. 
US 40 leaves I-70 for the final time upon entering the western suburbs of Baltimore, once again as Baltimore National Pike. The route passes through Patapsco Valley State Park north of Ellicott City and enters the Baltimore city limits along Edmondson Avenue. East of Gwynns Falls Leakin Park, US 40 becomes Franklin Street, and becomes an expressway (formerly I-170) for a short distance between Pulaski Street and Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard. Through this area, an alignment called "Truck US 40" diverts larger vehicles onto an alternate route. US 40 passes through the Mount Vernon neighborhood and a few blocks from Baltimore's Washington Monument.  After crossing the Jones Falls Expressway (I-83), US 40 follows Orleans Street, and finally becomes the Pulaski Highway as it leaves Baltimore to the northeast.  
US 40, for the entire length of Pulaski Highway, closely parallels I-95. Pulaski Highway passes through Gunpowder Falls State Park near Joppa and the Aberdeen Proving Ground. Between Havre de Grace and Perryville it crosses the Susquehanna River on the Thomas J. Hatem Memorial Bridge. US 40 leaves Maryland in Elkton, crossing the border into Delaware.  
US 40 crosses Delaware for about 17 miles (27 km). Entering the state from Maryland in Glasgow, it continues along the Pulaski Highway. Much roadside commercial development slows traffic, as there are many traffic lights along the route. US 40 crosses Delaware Route 1 in the community of Bear before merging with US 13 and the Dupont Highway in State Road. The concurrent routes turn north, pass the Wilmington Airport and US 40 splits to join I-295 near Wilmington Manor. US 40, along with I-295, uses the Delaware Memorial Bridge to cross the Delaware River into New Jersey.  
New Jersey Edit
US 40 enters New Jersey in Deepwater, New Jersey along with I-295. US 40 briefly joins the New Jersey Turnpike, and exits to the north of the toll booths. The route follows Wiley Road, parallel to the Turnpike, before joining Harding Highway in Carneys Point. US 40 is known as the Harding Highway through most of South Jersey. Northeast of it convergence with US 40, Harding Highway carries the Route 48 designation, although this was once part of US 40 as well.  
US 40 enters the borough of Woodstown as a concurrency with Route 45 along West Avenue it leaves town heading southeast. In Upper Pittsgrove Township, the road changes names to the Pole Tavern-Elmer Road. Passing through Elmer it becomes Chestnut St. and then the Elmer-Malaga Road. In Malaga, it runs concurrent with Route 47 (Delsea Drive). The route bypasses the city of Vineland to the northeast, and becomes Cape May Avenue in Hamilton Township, where it crosses Route 50 in Mays Landing.
US 40 merges with US 322 and the Black Horse Pike in McKee City. The two routes enter Atlantic City along Albany Avenue and pass the Atlantic City Airport. US 40 and US 322 both reach their eastern terminus at the intersection of Albany Avenue and Ventnor Avenue.  
Early roads Edit
US 40's history can be traced back several centuries. Several well established Native American footpaths, including Nemacolin's Path and Mingo Path in the Maryland-Pennsylvania area, followed similar alignments to US 40.  Early American colonists established roads, some following the established Native American paths, that would later serve as US 40. These included a segment of post road between Wilmington, Delaware, and Baltimore, Maryland.  In 1755, during the French and Indian Wars, General Edward Braddock blazed a trail en route to capture Fort Duquesne (modern Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). US 40 closely follows this route between Cumberland, Maryland and Uniontown, Pennsylvania. 
Early in the history of the U.S., the State of Maryland established a network of turnpikes for long-distance travel. Three of these would later serve as part of US 40: the Baltimore and Havre de Grace Turnpike, the Baltimore and Frederick Turnpike, and Bank Road.  Colonel Ebenezer Zane (for whom Zanesville, Ohio was named) blazed some of the first trails across the Ohio wilderness in the last years of the 18th century. Zane's Trace, as his road was called, stretched from Wheeling, West Virginia, to Maysville, Kentucky. With some minor alignment differences, US 40 closely matches the segment from Wheeling to Zanesville. 
Between the cities of Lawrence and Topeka, Kansas, US 40 follows the path of the Oregon Trail. During the 19th century, the Oregon Trail served as a major thoroughfare for people emigrating to the Pacific Northwest. Between 1850 and 1852, some 65,000–70,000 people traveled the trail. 
National Road Edit
In 1806, Thomas Jefferson signed into law an act of Congress establishing a National Road to connect the waters of the Atlantic Ocean with the Ohio River. The law mentions Baltimore as its eastern terminus but the route used established Maryland turnpikes east of Cumberland. A new road was constructed from Cumberland to Wheeling, West Virginia, and later extended across the states of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. Segments of the National Road used Braddock's Road and Zane's Trace. Plans to extend the road to Missouri were never completed. The farthest western terminus for the National Road was the Old State House in Vandalia, Illinois. 
The National Road was absorbed into the National Old Trails Ocean-to-Ocean highway, a route from New York, New York, to Los Angeles, California in the early 20th century. The National Road became US 40 in the original 1925 plan for U.S. Routes. To this day, many places still name US 40 "National Road", even where the alignment was moved from the original road. Besides US 40, much of the National Road is paralleled by segments of Interstates 68 and 70. 
Victory Highway Edit
Most of the western section of US 40 follows the former route of Victory Highway, a road that once linked Kansas City to San Francisco. The road was named as a memorial to fallen World War I veterans. Other than two sections (one in California and one in Kansas/Colorado) most of the original route of US 40 west of Kansas City used Victory Highway.   According to a 1926 guide published about the Victory Highway, it was the fastest route between San Francisco and Salt Lake City, allowing travellers to complete the 784-mile (1,262 km) trip "comfortably and in high gear in from 3 to 4 days."  Controversy over the routing of US 40 over the Victory Highway led to a "divided route", with US 40S following the Victory Highway and US 40N taking a more northerly route. 
US 40 was one of the original 1926 U.S. Highways. [ citation needed ]
The route was a cross-country, east–west route, as most routes with a "0" number were defined. In 1926, the road had a total mileage of 3,228 miles (5,195 km). Though the eastern terminus was planned for State Road, Delaware, by 1927 it was moved to Atlantic City, New Jersey. The western terminus was San Francisco via an auto ferry across San Francisco Bay from the Berkeley Pier in Berkeley, California. Upon completion of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, US 40 was re-routed over the bridge, bypassing the ferry pier. Early alignments of the road featured ferries at both ends. To cross the Delaware River, ferries were used, originally from Wilmington, Delaware (1927–1929) and later from New Castle, Delaware (1929–1951). In 1951, the opening of the Delaware Memorial Bridge replaced the ferry service and carried US 40 across the Delaware River. 
From 1926 to 1935 the route split in Manhattan, Kansas, into "40N" and "40S" routes the two routes met again in Limon, Colorado. The "40S" route continued on to Grand Junction, Colorado. In 1935, the split routes were eliminated. US 40N between Manhattan and Limon and then US 40S from Limon to Grand Junction was replaced by U.S. Route 24, the remainder was renumbered as simply US 40. 
New alignments for the road were designated in Maryland in 1948 and in Utah in 1950. California's segment of the highway was decommissioned in 1964. By 1966, the western terminus moved to Reno, Nevada. The road shortened again in 1975, to its current western end at Silver Creek Junction, Utah. In 1998, the California segment was given a sort of rebirth with the designation of Historic Route 40 through that state. Further realignments occurred in Utah where the highway was re-routed for the Jordanelle Reservoir in the mid 1990s, and Kansas City, Kansas, in 1999 to make way for the Kansas Speedway. On December 1, 2008, a further realignment in Kansas City rerouted US 40 away from State Avenue and the Turner Diagonal and onto K-7 and Interstate 70.
"In 1998 [Eddie Lange] persuaded the California legislature to designate Route 40 between Reno and San Francisco as Historic Route 40."  Together with Trish Gray, the duo designed the signs and a program where local businesses could donate funds to have a sign erected near their business along the route. The signs can now be found throughout the California route and is a popular route for motorcycle clubs and other travel enthusiasts. [ citation needed ]
Historical route Edit
The former route of US 40 in California generally runs parallel to modern Interstate 80. In Contra Costa County it is San Pablo Avenue, now signed as California State Route 123. Portions of Historic Route 40 exist in American Canyon,  Vallejo, along 5th Street, Alameda Street and Broadway. In Cordelia and Suisun City, the original route is along Cordelia Road. It is also signed as a historic route. The original route is preserved as Texas Street in Fairfield. In Vacaville the highway is preserved as Monte Vista Avenue. In Davis, the highway is now Russell Boulevard, the main street through downtown Davis. In Sacramento the highway followed the routes of modern Capitol Avenue, SR 160 and Auburn Boulevard. Between Roseville and Newcastle, the highway is known as Taylor Road and Pacific Street through Rocklin. Through the Sierra Nevada many portions are still drivable, crossing I-80. Portions still drivable include Applegate Road in Applegate, Hampshire Rocks Road in a rural area near Cisco, and Donner Pass Road over Donner Pass and into Truckee. Between Truckee and the Nevada state line, the former route of US 40 is mostly visible from the freeway, but not drivable as a contiguous route. Portions accessible include Glenshire Drive, Hirshdale Road and Floriston Way.
From 1954 to 1964, an alternate route US 40 was available especially during winter to avoid Donner Pass. Donner Pass, elevation 7,056 ft (2,151 m), might be closed in winter. This alternate route used Beckwourth Pass, elevation of 5,221 ft (1,591 m). Since Beckwourth Pass was nearly 2,000 ft (610 m) lower than Donner Pass, it could be kept open longer. ALT US 40 parted the main track of US 40 near Davis and ran north along what was then signed as U.S. Route 99W into Woodland. From Woodland, ALT US 40 ran north along California State Route 24 through Knights Landing and Robbins into Yuba City. Most of the section from Woodland to Yuba City is now signed as California State Route 113. From Yuba City, ALT US 40 ran east through Marysville, then north through Oroville. Continuing north and northeast, ALT US 40 reached Paxton, then turned south and southeast to Quincy and Beckwourth before crossing. East of Beckwourth Pass, ALT US 40 descended to meet U.S. Route 395 at what is now Hallelujah Junction, and followed US 395 into Reno to meet mainline US 40.  The section from Marysville to U.S. Route 395 was then still an extension of Route 24, but is now signed as California State Route 70, although much of the old highway was moved further west before Lake Oroville was dammed and flooded in 1968.
In Nevada, US 40 was also directly replaced by I-80. All of the I-80 business loops use the historical route of US 40. In the Truckee Meadows the route is still drivable as 3rd street in Verdi and 4th street in Reno and Victorian Ave in Sparks. In rural Nevada the highway forms the business loops for Wadsworth, Fernley, Lovelock, Winnemucca, Battle Mountain, Carlin, Elko, and West Wendover. The route and its former alignments can be seen (and some still driven) all along the routing of I-80. Much of the old right-of-way of old US 40 has been either demolished or left to natural degradation.
In Wendover the former route of US 40 is signed as SR-58 and runs along the Wendover Cut-off, south of the freeway, across the Bonneville Salt Flats. The route re-emerges from the shadow of I-80 as SR-138 through Grantsville and Tooele. Interstate 80 was directly paved over the former route of US 40 through Parley's Canyon and over Parley's Summit, with very little of the original pavement remaining through the mountains. East of the Wasatch Mountains is the modern terminus of US 40.
Two routes existed through Salt Lake City. West of Temple Square US 40 was consistently routed on North Temple Street. East of Temple Square US 40 had two alignments, originally departing Temple Square south along State Street concurrent with US 91 and US 89 to 2100 south. The road then used 2100 South and Parley's Way, towards Parley's Canyon. Later US 40 was moved to Foothill Drive, along modern SR-186, with the 2100 south routing becoming US 40ALT. The two routes converged at the mouth of Parley's Canyon.